The story of writing, astronomy, and law. The literature of culture itself effects in one area. Not Egypt, not Greece, not Rome. But Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is an extremely prolific plain located within this Tigris also that Euphrates Rivers.
For five millennia, the small strip of land situated in what is today Iraq, Kuwait and Syria fostered innovations that would change the world forever. Inhabited for nearly twelve,000 years, Mesopotamia’s stable climate, rich soil and a steady supply of freshwater made it ideal for agriculture to develop and thrive. About 6,000 years agonizingly overnight, some of these agricultural settlements blossomed into some of the world’s first cities. In the period between 4,000 and 3,100 BC, Mesopotamia was dotted with a constellation of competing for city-states.
At one point, they were unified under the Akkadian Empire and then broke apart forming the empires of Assyria and Babylon. Despite close to constant warfare, innovation and development thrived in ancient Mesopotamia. They built on a monumental scale from palaces to ziggurats, mammoth temples served as ritual locations to commune with the gods.
They additionally developed advanced arithmetic, including a base 60 system that created a 60-second minute, a 60-minute hour and a 360-degree circular angle. The Babylonians used their subtle system of arithmetic to map and study the sky.
They divided one earth year into 12 periods. Each was named when the most outstanding constellations within the heavens, a tradition later adopted by the Greeks to create the zodiac. They also divided the week into seven days, naming each after their seven gods embodied by the seven observable planets in the sky.
This novel of culture itself begins in one area
But maybe the foremost impactful innovation to come back out of the geographic region is a skill. What began as simple pictures scrawled onto wet clay to keep track of goods and wealth developed into a sophisticated writing system by the year 3,200 BC.
This writing system would come to be called cuneiform in modern times and proved so flexible that over the span of 3,000years, it would be adapted for over a dozen different major languages and countless uses including recording the law of the Babylonian king Hammurabi, which formed the basis of a standardized justice system.
Where Is Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is located in what is now known as the Middle East, which holds parts of Southwest Asia and the lands around the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is a part of the Fertile Crescent, also known as the “cradle of civilization” for the number of innovations originating from early societies in the region, which are some of the earliest known human civilizations on Earth.
The word “Mesopotamia” is derived from the ancient words, meaning between or in between, and “potamos”, meaning river. Situated in fertile valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the region is now home to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, Turkey, and Syria.
These scattered agricultural communities began in the northern part of the ancient Mesopotamia region and spread to the south, growing for several thousand years until modern humans would identify as cities that were considered the work of the Sumerians.
Uruk was the first of these cities, circa 3200 BC. It was an earthen brick metropolis built from trade and conquest and had public art, huge pillars, and temples. At its peak, it had a population of about 50,000 citizens.
The fundamental importance of the material is made clear by the naming of the era of civilizations – the Stone, Iron including Bronze Age – each new era being brought about by new material. Iron and steel were the defining materials of the Victorian era, allowing engineers to fully rein in their dreams of building suspension bridges, railways, steam engines, and passenger liners. The Isambard Kingdom Brunel used them as a manifesto to change the panorama and sow the seeds of modernity. The 20th century is often referred to as silicon science, following the breakthrough in materials science that initiated the silicon chip and information upset. Yet the kaleidoscope of other new materials also changed modern life. The architects took mass-produced sheet glass and combined it with structural steel to build skyscrapers that invented a new type of city life. Plastic changed our homes and dress. Polymers were used to produce celluloid and a new visual culture, beginning in cinema. The development of aluminum alloys and nickel superalloy enabled us to fly cheaply and accelerate the collision of cultures. Medical and dental ceramics allowed us to redefine ourselves and to redefine disability and aging – and by the term “plastic surgery”, the element is often repaired by our faculties (hip replacement) or our facilities. The key to new treatments used for development is being development (for silicone implants).
But Mesopotamia’s success became its undoing. Babylon, in particular, proved too made a state to resist outside envy. In 539 BC, the Persian king Cyrus conquered the city and sealed his management over the completeness of geographic region.